Science Technology News - NAVETCO
Interferon: Application in Prevention and Treatment of Animal Diseases
Interferon (IFN) was discovered by Issaacs & Lindenmann (1957) when injected inactivated influenza virus into kidney tissue membrane of chicken embryo. IFN is a group of proteins produced by immune system cells in most animals to fight against foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites.
IFN is not only formed when the cells are infected with virus, but also when the cells are stimulated by a number of foreign substances such as nucleic acids, bacteria, bacteria toxins, protozoa, etc. There are two type of IFN which are IFN type I and type II. While IFN type I contains IFNa (many groups), IFNß, and IFN? and IFNe; IFN type II has only IFN?. IFN-a/ß are produced by many types of lymphocytes T, B, macrophage, fibrous materials and other types of cells, while IFN? is produced by T cells and NK cells . The IFN response to infections are very rapid and is the first barrier to protect the body against many pathogens. The activity mechanism of natural IFN or when introduced into the body for the purpose of prevention or treatment are the same as stimulating the immune system. All IFN-a / ß have the same cellular entry point and the same activity form on target cells, and the products formed by IFN activation will increase the process of antigen-presenting and activating against virus replication in the cell.
IFNa activity is non-specific for the species. IFNa derived from human can operate on the cells of animals and vice versa. For example, bovine-derived IFNa can also operate on porcine and human fibroblasts, porcine-derived IFNa can also operate in equine, bovine and human cells.
In general, IFN has a number of effects such as antiviral, immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, stimulates cell differentiation, cell-multiply control, etc. Antiviral activity of IFN was proved when studied with encephalomyocarditis viruses, pox viruses, FMD viruses, PRRS viruses, TGE viruses, Gumboro, Newcastle, Influenza ... etc and IFN also be seen as an immune adjuvant when used in combination with FMD and avian influenza vaccines. The interaction of IFN in the oral cavity is the basis for the oral application of IFN by drinking.
It was found that, in humans and animals, when viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasma enters the body through nose and mouth, IFN will be produced in nose and fauces secretions, and thereby activate immune response of the body, although IFN in animal blood is not detectable. The introduction of interferon in the body by oral method has good effect on animals and humans, likewise when IFN is injected into the body, IFN via oral route induce safe results, but easier to adminiser.
As prescribed by Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, IFNa is used to treat rotavirus in calves under 30 days of age via oral route, at a dose of 0.5 U / kg, once a day for 5 consecutive days.
Currently, IFN has been widely used to treat human and animal diseases. In humans, IFN is used to treat hepatitis C, B, warts in genital organs, cancer, autoimmune diseases ... etc. For cattle, IFNa is used in the prevention and treatment of livestock and poultry as a safe and effective solution. IFN is effective in supporting the treatment of acute or chronic respiratory diseases, when combined with antibiotics, especially in cases of illness caused by viruses such as FMDV, PRRS, swine flu infection with secondary bacteria (streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, mycoplasma ..etc). The use of IFN in combination with antibiotics is highly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases.
The efficacy of IFN in disease prevention and treatment is shown in the following aspects: Reduce the prevalence of the disease, reduce the incidence of severe diseases, reduce mortality, shorter duration of treatment, limit excretion of pathogen, reduce transmission infection and reduce economic losses and improve the efficiency of animal husbandry. A number of respiratory and digestive diseases when applied with antibiotics in combination with IFN also bring good results, limit the development of resistance by bacteria.
Thus, to improve the efficacy of chronic infectious disease treatment, or when dealing with infectious diseases without preventive vaccines or not highly effective vaccine, the use of interferon for prevention and support in the treatment of cattle diseases can be a solution worth considered.
Dr. Tran Xuan Hanh (Centre of Veterinary Research – NAVETCO)
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