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Science Technology News - NAVETCO

Essential Nutrients In Aquaculture

Update on Mon, 13.01.2014

Nowadays, with the great development of the aquaculture sector with scale intensive and semi-intensive farming, the natural food sources will not provide enough nutritional ingredients for shrimp and fish as protein, fat, vitamin , minerals ..., this will affect the development of shrimp and fish, affecting the quality of the exported products. Nutrition not only plays an important role for the growth and development but also a great influence on the health of aquatic animals, aquatic animal needs 40 different nutrients from intake food. However, there are some substances which aquatic animal itself cannot synthesize are called essential nutrient, essential nutrition groups include groups of amino acids, vitamins, trace minerals … 

Protein is a source of essential amino acids; it has roles in structuring and creating energy. Animal will grow slowly, late sexual maturity, reduce fertility and disease resistant ability due to lack of proteins. For catfish, protein demands for growth and ensure the health of fish in the development phase is from 24-36% lysine and methionine requirements respectively 5.35% and 2.67% / kg protein.

Lipids are essential fatty acid source, important structural component of a cell membrane, create flavor to stimulate shrimp and fish eat more ... the use lipids for shrimp (0.5 – 3g is 6.7%, 3-15g is 6.3%, 15 -30g is 6%) of which required special attention to two groups of fatty acids Omega 3 and Omega 6, in the absence of this essential fatty acid will reduce the growth of shrimp and fish, increase mortality and decrease the efficiency of using food. In addition, there appear phenomena tail fin erosion, liver degeneration shown enlarged liver, re-color, reduced fertility (low hatch ability of eggs and larvae survival rates and low fry). In prawn larval period, the growth will increase when food is added 2% lecithin, the larvae will hardly molt if food is lack of omega 3.

The trace elements such as vitamins and minerals are also essential complement and balance in aquatic food... Fisheries if not provided adequate vitamin will lead to slow growth, low survival rates, poor ability to tolerance with environmental fluctuations, some physiological function disorders and disease prone.

  • In catfish, vitamin C is essential for metabolism, involved in the process of growth and development, increased disease resistance, characteristics of vitamin C is water soluble and heat unstable, fish themselves cannot synthesize vitamin C so without vitamin C will lead to head hemorrhage, fin and gill corrosion, vitamin A deficiency leads to anemia, hemorrhage eye ..
  • n shrimp, lack of B1, B2 leads to pale shrimp, excitable, nervous system disorders, retarded ..., Biotin deficiency leads to low survival rate…

Minerals have an important role in metabolism process, maintain physiological function for shrimp, fish ...Recently researchers have identified 23 minerals needed for shrimp, fish. For instant, Calcium and Phosphate need for the fish bone formation process, the process of molting shrimp. Lack of Magnesium leads fish inactive, reduced appetite and high mortality rates. Lack of Zinc, shrimp and fish reduced growth and reproduction...

Currently most of the people in aquaculture uses formulate foods to feed fish and shrimp, known as pellets (Pellet food) and is divided into the sinking pellets for shrimp, floating pellets for fish, the food industry has already vitamin in ingredients (fish meal, meat meal, bone meal, soybean meal ... ..) however the heating process, extrusion will lose significant Vitamin like Vitamin A will lose 20%, Vitamin PP (including niacin, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) will lose 20% during pelleting, Vitamin B2 will lose 26% ...... .in addition, incorrect food preservation process will affect food quality (the oil rancid, mold ..) Eating oil rancid food will reduce the survival rate of fish, rising of consuming food coefficient, fish meat are yellow, reduce meat quality .., The amount of Vitamin also reduces like Vitamin A decreases as 53% after 06 months storage time, Vitamin B6 loses 7-10% in pelleting process and preserve .Therefore, to ensure adequate supply of essential nutrients to fisheries, we need to add essential nutrients in feeds, commonly known under the name Premix.

Premix is a mixture containing active ingredients (amino acids, vitamins, trace elements  ...) and carriers (bran, lime ...). There are some concerning factors affect the quality of product during producing and using product:

  • Standard moisture: very important because the moisture is related to the development of microorganisms and affects shelf life.
  • Organoleptic standards: the product must have a unique color, aroma, no musty or smelly.
  • Nutritional standards: usually be based on the nutritional requirements for each stage of development of shrimp, fish (DE or ME or Mcal / kg mixture) Ratio P / E, protein and amino acids, fats and fatty acids, trace minerals, vitamins ... these standards are normally calculated before mixing by manufacturers so farmers simply use under guidance.

Currently on the market, there are many products supplied from domestic and foreign companies, as NAVETCO companies also produce some Premix product used in aquaculture such as NAVET - vitalyte, NAVET - glucanmin, Navet- gluanvit, NAVET-C min, NAVET-sorvitol ... these are complementary essential nutrient which is very effective when used in aquaculture.

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